Morning Links

Wednesday, February 18th, 2009
  • As Arkansas voters did last year, Kentucky now wants to ban gay couples from adopting or fostering children. I’ve seen the studies showing that kids are better off in families with a mother and a father. Fair enough. But are the idiots pushing this bill really trying to argue that Kentucky’s 7,000 foster kids are better off as wards of the state than in a loving family with gay parents? Or is hating gay people more important than what’s best for these kids?
  • How much support is there in Congress for the fairness doctrine?
  • It’s a couple of years old, but I this Trey Garrison piece on corruption in the Dallas Police Department. As usual, the actual misconduct is limited to just a few bad officers. The more systemic problem is in how everyone else covers up for them. I go back to what a hip hop artist told me at conference a couple of years ago: “The blue wall of silence is the most successful stop snitchin’ campaign in history.”
  • Testimony from a former guard at Guantanamo Bay. It’s difficult to blame the ground-level guys in this stuff. I blame the people who put in place the policies that allowed it to happen. Which is why they need to be held accountable.
  • A rickety, wooden story.
  • “This Is Your Face After Inconveniencing The Stanly County District Attorney. Any Questions?”
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  • 44 Responses to “Morning Links”

    1. #1 |  Euler | 

      The Fairness Doctrine is stupid. Are we going to have to give five minutes to the guy who believes the earth is flat, or the sun orbits the earth to tell us about his views? What about the guy who says we walked the earth with dinosaurs 8000 years ago or the guy who says 2+2=3? Who exactly gets to decide what viewpoints are too ridiculous to deserve airtime? Oh, right, the government. I guess there is no need to worry then because there is surely no conflict of interest in the government deciding what gets to go on the airwaves.

    2. #2 |  Mike T | 

      Or is hating gay people more important than what’s best for these kids?

      Imagine that, people who believe that homosexuality is sexual immorality and the opposite of a normal family life would not want kids raised in that environment.

      As you pointed out, kids tend to do best in families where they have a married mother and father. Couldn’t possibly have anything to do with the fact that both men and women need the example of an active mother and father because there are things they need from both of them equally while growing up.

    3. #3 |  Radley Balko | 

      Couldn’t possibly have anything to do with the fact that both men and women need the example of an active mother and father because there are things they need from both of them equally while growing up.

      Except that, as noted, there are 7,000 kids who are wards of the state in Kentucky. Meaning that there are way more kids than there are hetero couples who want them. Hence, my point. Unless you think these kids are better off raised by the state of Kentucky than they are by a loving gay couple, this is more about hating gay people than it is about what’s best for these kids.

    4. #4 |  Nando | 

      On the gay adoption link:

      I disagree with the “mother and father” household is better for kids argument. Most (and I say most to cover my arse, all the ones I’ve seen fall under this category) of the studies that conclude this were funded and/or performed by groups who subscribe to this idea prior to the study. They aren’t scientific in the least.

      I’ll grant that a child raised in a two-parent home has a better probability of having a better life than one who grows up in a one-parent home. This, however, I believe has to do with the amount of love and attention the child receives. With two parents, it is more likely that someone is reading to the kid, or tucking him in at night, or telling him stories, or bonding with him, or teaching him how to ride a bike, etc. The important thing, as far as I’m concerned, is that someone spend time with the child and raise him. Something that is much harder to do when there is only one parent or guardian.

      I agree with you, Radley, I think that all this stems from homophobia. I am convinced, tho, that the day will come, and soon, when being gay will be accepted. It is a civil rights issue and I believe that, in the long run, we will do what is right as a country.

    5. #5 |  Nando | 

      As for the second paragraph on my last post, I’d like to add that it doesn’t matter what sex the two parents are. They could be the same or different, the important thing is that two can usually do a better job than one plus two incomes usually provide a better standard of living than just one.

    6. #6 |  MassHole | 

      Hey Mike T:

      Not everyone has the same idea of what constitutes “sexual morality”. In addition, I’ve known several gay couples who have adopted kids who were wards of the state and given them a loving home where they thrive and will become educated and productive members of society. I’m sure all the married bigots in Kentucky are lining up to adopt these kids and save them from the gay menace, right?

    7. #7 |  Gerlach | 

      As I understand it, there aren’t any studies that show that children fare better with two parents of opposite gender than they do with same-sex parents. The only studies I’ve seen, and these are the same ones often pimped by the anti-gay lobby, show that children who have two parents generally have better outcomes than children with only a single parent, which isn’t surprising. I haven’t, however, seen any study that shows that a male/female parent combo is better than male/male or female/female. Maybe I’m missing something?

    8. #8 |  Jerri Lynn Ward | 

      Re the 7000 kids:

      I had my first dealings with CPS (in Texas) within the last year because I volunteered to help an FLDS father. I have since learned about how easy it is for CPS to snatch kids, and how they resist family reunification.

      My reaction to the 7000 kids is not that they should be give the gay couples, but that there should be real consideration about whether or not they should be reunited with their parents. In fact, the political aspect of this and the activism of gays to gain “rights” to adopt concerns me because I have no doubt that the minions of CPS would stymie warranted family reunifications in order to provide children to gay couples for political reasons and not because of the best interests of the children.

    9. #9 |  Sithmonkey | 

      Having grown up in a boys home, I can attest to the social and psychological problems with allowing kids to become institutionalized in the foster care system.

      I was fortunate that the boys home had a decent system of mentoring us and preparing us for the outside world, but there were still many problems after leaving.

      The two parent system is desirable, but hardly realistic in this day and age.

    10. #10 |  Tom Sullivan | 

      I not only agree with Radley, but take it a step further to say that even a single parent would be better for a child than a state institution. But ultimately I think this whole “which couple offers the best role model for kids” argument is missing the point completely. It’s about freedom, no more, no less. If a couple, no matter their make-up, wants to adopt and there is an orphanage / home that is willing to work with them, then it is their RIGHT to adopt…period. For the state to interfere is simply wrong and a complete refutation of a person’s right to the peacful pursuit of their happiness.

    11. #11 |  Will | 

      I havent gone back and read the studies recently. But, I believe that you are incorrect. The research does NOT support the statement that straight couples are better parents than gay couples.

      http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/policy/2008_09_expand_resources.php

      “# Research shows that children fare as well with gay and lesbian parents as those raised by heterosexuals.

      There is currently little research on the long-term outcomes for children adopted by gays or lesbians. However, studies on children dating back 25 years conclude that children raised by gay and lesbian non-adoptive parents fare as well as those reared by heterosexual parents (Breways, Ponjaert, Van Hall, & Golombok, 1997; Chan, Raboy & Patterson, 1998; Golombok, Perry, Burston, Murray, Mooney-Sommer, Stevens, & Golding, 2003; Wainwright, Russell & Patterson, 2004).

    12. #12 |  getting sexual | 

      As for the 7000 children who are wards of the state, my bet is these are the older kids with issues that no sane person wants in their household, (besides maybe their actual parents who have had the child stolen from them by CPS). Children 3 years old and younger are virtually non-existent in staying wards of the state, (the vast majority of both gays and straights want to adopt young children). So, minus a major overhaul of the system or a change in our belief that a child should EVER belong to the state, their will always be a percentage who are locked into being a ward of the state until they reach 18.

    13. #13 |  Ganja Blue | 

      Tennessee is attempting to pass a requirement that only married couples could adopt children. Singles, Gays, Shack-ups need not apply. Only state-sanctioned unions would be allow state-sanctioned adoptions. If marriage were actually successful in more that 50% of cases they might have an argument. There’s a fallacy that this would mean to gays would normally be able to adopt an infant from an crisis pregnancy. While this would theoretically true there’s enough homophobia in the deep south to keep that from happening. In most cases of an unwanted pregnancy the biological mother is allowed to select parents from a list of applicants. I don’t think, due to certain prejudices, that these mothers would be selecting gay couples over straight ones. I would imagine that most mothers would want “traditional” families to raise their babies.

      I think the solution to all this is to end state marriage licensing and allow individuals to decide what marriage is to them. I guarantee you that piece of paper my minister signed isn’t what’s holding my wife and I together. I love my wife dearly and to reduce our union to a bureaucratic licensing process is insulting.

    14. #14 |  Bill | 

      The article by Trey Garrison is, predictably, both frustrating and inspiring. It is good to see that some police will not stand for the corruption and go along with the “blue wall of silence”. And for me personally, it was satisfying to see that Novello took his stand based on his spiritual convictions. It always pleases me when our beliefs actually make a difference in how we live.

      I do disagree, though, with those who say they understand why officers would keep quiet about this type of misconduct. They are failing their pledge to “serve and protect” if they allow fellow officers to abuse innocents, and thus also disgrace their badges.

      Considering the “rickety wooden story”, I wonder if there might be a feasible way to aggregate information about police whose dishonest testimony is unarguably discredited in court, so that defense attorneys could then access those cases to speak to the credibility of the officers as witnesses? Adoption of such a system might be a backdoor way to remove some of the liars from police employment. I see the chief saying, “I’d like to keep you on the force, Jeremy, but every time you go into court the defense attorney tells the story about you lying about the rickety stairs, and now no jury will believe a word that you say.”

    15. #15 |  getting sexual | 

      “Meaning that there are way more kids than there are hetero couples who want them.”

      Follow the money and you might find this to be just a wild assumption. CPS budget is defined by the number of children they keep in the system, (not by the number of children who are returned to their parents or who are adopted out).

      When we’ve got the recent news of judges taking bribes to put juvenile offenders in certain institutions, what makes you think CPS and foster parents, (who make money off the deal too), aren’t already doing the same?

      You want to continue to get self-righteous about the issue Radley, at least take a libertarian stance and call for a removal of another corrupt government system, not a band-aid which will only help a pet-issue of yours and wouldn’t get at-risk kids away from state sanctioned abusers anyway.

    16. #16 |  World B. Free | 

      “It looks like the ACLU of Arkansas will file a lawsuit challenging Act 1, the new law that prohibits cohabiting adults from adopting or fostering children”
      http://arktimes.com/Articles/Category.aspx?CategoryID=a68fd53a-1084-4cc7-a387-bbdb2927d44f

    17. #17 |  ZappaCrappa | 

      I grew up in the hills of KY…I am not at all surprised. Hell…they still brag about being members of the KKK there.

      Dear KY…thank god I left when I hit 18 and ran like I had an asshole full of gasoline and the road was on fire behind me!

    18. #18 |  SJE | 

      After being removed from a house with violent, drug-addicted, sexually abusing parents, we can’t further traumatize the children by exposure to a gay family and their dangerous world of musical theatre.

    19. #19 |  Nick T | 

      As I think I’ve shared on here before I work in the CPS system as an attorney representing (usually) parents who are trying to get their kids back.

      The system is very problematic in that CPS people are very reluctant to reunify families until they are almost 100% satisfied that the parent’s original problems are fixed for good. This is unrealistic and not in accordance with the law which says that parents merely have to be “adequate.”

      However, the main reasons this continues are not money, as much as they are fear and simple wrong-headedness. (As much as I think CPS typically makes wrong decisions, I don’t think a case worker has ever thought about his or her agency’s budget when making one.)

      Studies show that when examining borderline cases kids do much better when they are returned to their parents as opposed to being removed for good. I would guess, from experience, that most of those returned to their home go to a home with only one parent (as very few of my cases involve two parent homes).

      But when you put someone in charge of “protecting kids from abusive parents” they often feel as though their own judgments and gut feelings supercede the law, afterall if they can protect just one kid blah blah blah. Then, these cases are usually private and shielded from media scrutiny; Judges have very little (basically zero) authority to control decisions such as parental visits, placement in which foster home etc.; and then what media coverage does exist, 99% of the time (literally) focuses on kids who were injured or killed and the question is always “where was CPS.”

      This all creates a culture where CPS applies very stringent standards to parents caught up in the system and where they blindly support foster homes and foster parents who have a history of not hurting kids but are not necessarily wonderful people themselves.

      Perhaps the saddest thing is that people only – at best – pay lip service to the iron-clad fact that it is traumatic for children to be removed from their parents because everyone is too busy “playing it safe” or some such bullshit.

    20. #20 |  Tolly | 

      The cop story was maddening and sad to read through. I’m always mystified as to why the majority of cops take any stock in the ‘blue wall of silence’ nonsense. True, the point system is the root of the problem… But by not refusing to be intimidated by their jerkoff bully brethren, they’ve lost the respect of the community, jeopardized any valid police work and disillusioned any number of potential officers.

      It drives me nuts to think that the wall of silence effectively amounts to “not doing a damn thing” when blatant misconduct is being perpetrated.

    21. #21 |  Episiarch | 

      To those who say that somehow having gay parents deprives a child of an influence they need:

      1. Everyone has relatives. Two gay dudes will have mothers and sisters and grandmothers and aunts to provide female influence.

      2. How would this be different than a straight man with a dead wife and a kid, whose brother comes to live with him to help out?

    22. #22 |  djm | 

      Re: Kentucky gay adoption

      The question of whether children should be placed with heterosexual or homosexuals is largely besides the point. There is some decent evidence that it’s better growing up with both a mother and a father figure (at home), so it’s one factor to consider amongst many others.

      The more interesting question is whether it is better for children to remain in the care of the state rather than with a loving homosexual couple. Intuitively, the latter makes sense, but really we need more evidence on this (i.e. can the moral grandstanders prove that a homosexual couple is an actively destructive force and a worse alternative than state care?) Saying “It’s not ideal,” is not an acceptable argument. Not when children’s lives are at stake.

    23. #23 |  Dave Krueger | 

      “As usual, the actual misconduct is limited to just a few bad officers.”

      While we may not have any evidence that the majority of cops are bad, we have plenty of evidence that suggests they would keep it a secret if that were the case.

    24. #24 |  chance | 

      Re: the Kentucky adoption law: Can we quantify the harm this law will do? How many homosexual couples or unmarried heterosexual couples adopt or become foster parents each year in KY?

    25. #25 |  getting sexual | 

      Episiarch, I think we are talking about the “ideal” family unit — Mother/Father married/committed. I quote “ideal” because I think it has only become “ideal” in our particular culture. The family units in many other countries I see as far more “ideal” — mother/father married/committed PLUS extended family, grandfather/grandmother, aunts/uncles, cousins, etc. combined into a real “ideal” family unit.

      This would provide plenty of influences for a child to identify with someone; someone who, because of the closeness of the family unit, they can become intimately familiar with; and role-model. This is inherently difficult in same-sex couples when the child is opposite sex of the parents and REQUIRES the outside influences you speak of.

      In the scenario you mentioned of two brothers raising children — the child would also likely see their “fathers” interact with adult females, therefore the young child, (if a girl), could understand she has a place to enter into in her parents world when she is ready to “grow up”. (Yet still, this scenario is no where close to “ideal”).

      Early childhood development is an amazing topic. The AFFECT we have anytime we interact with a child is HUGE. One way or another, you are making a difference in that child’s life. Make it count!

    26. #26 |  Bob | 

      The Trey Garrison story was infuriating. Equally infuriating was the fact that I didn’t find it shocking, the Dallas Police acted exactly as I would have expected them to.

      There are no good cops. There are bad cops, and there are good people that get weeded off the force.

      We need transparency and liability. We need to remove incentives for arresting people and add incentives for being a beacon of ethical behavior.

      Consider this: What if SWAT teams used a similar points system? They would be benefited by breaking down as many doors as possible and doing as many searches as possible, legal or not, and bringing as many cops along as possible to share the assists. To support the gravy train, their superiors would set up ‘procedures’ and deflect suggestions of wrong doing from their officers. Sound familiar?

    27. #27 |  Lenny Zimmermann | 

      The only problem I have is that the line “is hating gay people more important than what’s best for these kids?” creates a false dichotomy. It’s like some Fox news pundit asking “Do you love America or do you oppose the war in Iraq?” In this case it’s not necessarily (although it certainly could be) hatred of gay people as a motivating factor. I would say that in most cases, though, these folks really, truly believe that homosexuality is morally wrong, a mortal sin even. And as such they have a firm belief that a child raised in such an environment really would be absolutely worse off than if they had to be raised as wards of the state. Same thing could be said for some folks who would rather a child be raised by the state than by heterosexual parents who gamble, or use drugs or any other number of things such folks might consider morally objectionable. It really is on par, to them, with giving a child over to be raised by crack addicts or something.

      I don’t mean to say I agree with them at all, mind you, only that to their mind it is not about hating the “sinner” at all, but about hating the sin and not wanting to submit a child to that.

    28. #28 |  Comrade Dread | 

      But are the idiots pushing this bill really trying to argue that Kentucky’s 7,000 foster kids are better off as wards of the state than in a loving family with gay parents?

      Yes.

      I do think that a household with a loving mother and father are ideal, but less than ideal does not mean necessarily harmful.

      There are a lot of situations that are worse than being put into a home with two mommies or two daddies who wanted you, and belonging to the State and being shuffled around at their whim definitely qualifies as being a LOT worse.

    29. #29 |  Spleen | 

      As you pointed out, kids tend to do best in families where they have a married mother and father. Couldn’t possibly have anything to do with the fact that both men and women need the example of an active mother and father because there are things they need from both of them equally while growing up.

      In that case, maybe we need to start taking children away from divorced parents, widows and widowers, and women who have children out of wedlock.

    30. #30 |  Frank | 

      [QUOTE]You are misguided and angry about the wrong things. You should be frustrated that Brian Wiederspohn, a previously convicted and admitted felon and wife beater who was harboring another felon received compensation for assaulting a police officer. If given a story to believe, I would likely side with two peace officers rather than a convicted felon. [/QUOTE]

      That comment below the news item sums up why cops continue to get away with their abuses. Seems that “convicted felons” no longer have any civil rights that police or “right-thinking people” need regard.

      It’s only when the completely innocent (Mayor Calvo for example) get the asp up where the sun don’t shine do people loudly object.

    31. #31 |  Frank | 

      First, gays and lesbians are considered unfit to adopt. How soon will it be before gun owners, libertarians, or people who won’t worship Obama are declared unfit parent?

      Oh, wait, we already are.

    32. #32 |  ShelbyC | 

      “The research does NOT support the statement that straight couples are better parents than gay couples.”

      I disagree with the law here, but do you really think it’s possible to get accurate research on that subject in the current acedemic climate?

    33. #33 |  Michael | 

      Please read all of what I have to say her. It will confuse the “hell” out of you! Maybe I am just crazy!

      I feel I am a, very, conservative, Christian with charismatic beliefs. What I see with the above thing on gay adoption is a failure of self-righteous Christians. And what do they have to be self-righteous about?!

      *How many, heterosexual couples, do I know, that are in second marriages (strike one-no divorce among real Christians) that would be considered unfit parents by the church? They have been sinning! Thus, broken the laws of God. Are they not continuing to do so, since divorce and remarriage is not allowed (in strict sects)? Is this any different than “illegal” than gay sex?

      *How many “Christians” have sex out of wedlock, (strike two) before they become married the second or third time? Are they, not also, unfit? Did they not break the laws of God, like gays?

      *How many, that live with a spouse, with their kids, under the same roof, before a second (or third or fourth) marriage (strike three-sex out of wedlock, again), that would be considered fit, by the church, to be adoptive parents? Most all of them, of course!

      *At least Arkansas (right there with Kentucky) did address the unmarried couple thing. But, how does this determine whether or not the unmarried couple won’t actually supply a better environment than two, lunatic type, custodians, who are married? Granted they are having sex out of wedlock, but so did, all of, the “Christian” people, described above!

      * How many kids, raised in a homosexual, two parent, environment, turn out to be “normal” heterosexual people, when grown? Most, I would dare to guess. How many kids turnout to be homosexual, or bisexual, when raised by heterosexual parents?

      I find it hard to oppose gay people, when, supposedly, Christian people are just as unrighteous as anyone else. We are, allegedly, saved, not perfect! I guess if I really sat down and thought about it, I could think of enough reasons to fill a book, on why the gay people are, just as, acceptable as the heterosexual couple.

      Hating gays sort of goes against the only commandment given to us “saved” people in the new testament. Since Jesus came to fulfill the law, he gave that commandment. “love your neighbor as yourself” Hate, for gays, has lead to the thought process in the opposition of their capacity to be good parents, ignoring the fact that two loving “parents” are in the child’s life!

      And it goes against the grain of loving your neighbor as yourself.
      If you actually did, you would not wish harm upon him. Denying the couple the joy of children (ha ha–are they crazy?!?! No. Really! Just kidding! I love my kids) is really abusive!

      It is hard for me to judge gays, when “illegal” heterosexual and homosexual behavior has been rampant in the “Church” likely, for centuries! Christians are supposed to know about that scripture , as well…”Judge not lest you be judged”

      I worked with gay people and they never, ever were anything other than good people, who I considered a little weird (my heterosexual opinion obviously) But good people, none the less!

      Maybe I am just plain crazy, but the true meaning of Christianity does not seem to be represented by these “righteous” people.

    34. #34 |  Michael | 

      Sorry I got so long winded!

    35. #35 |  Tolly | 

      The depressing part of the cop thread is the fact that it’s the citizenry that usually encourages these sorts of tough-on-crime quota/point systems.

      Anyone can use a “fact” to shore up their stumping for office or funds or whatever. The ugly reality behind bloated stats are stories like this. Reminds me of juking the stats, a la ‘The Wire’.

    36. #36 |  Helmut O' Hooligan | 

      RE: Dallas PD Story…

      “That’s one reason Lopez decided to become a cop. She had no illusions she was going to save the world. But she remembered that Arlington police officer, and she wanted to make a difference.”

      I found that part of the story moving, because I have been there. I grew up in a police family, visited the station now and again, and was treated very kindly by the officers I knew. By in large, they were good people in a less than ideal system.

      I developed a balanced picture of the field , with the help of my father. When I decided to become a law enforcement major, he didn’t necessarily jump for joy, but he tried to be helpful and offered sage advice, such as, “first finish college” (so I did).

      Veteran officers like my dad did not feel the need to get into foot pursuits every day, or act like cowboys. Indeed, they developed an understanding with the guys on the street because they weren’t “hard chargers,” in the parlance of my community. Unfortunately, this idea seems to be lost on too many officers of my generation. Becoming an ambassador for, and a servant of the community is becoming a played out notion for the “action cops” that demand so much attention these days.

      So I survey the damage that has been done to policing by the “drug war,” the “war on terrorism,” and the notion that all risk can be eliminated and I am demoralized. After nearly a decade of educating myself, working in a related field, and studying the system, I just don’t think my heart’s in it anymore. I admire the courage of people like former Officer Lopez. I just don’t know if I want to go down the same hard road she did.

    37. #37 |  Helmut O' Hooligan | 

      “I go back to what a hip hop artist told me at conference a couple of years ago: “The blue wall of silence is the most successful stop snitchin’ campaign in history.”

      That, by the way, is a brilliant observation! This is a notion that should be presented to recruits at the academy. If you look the other way or enable a crooked colleague, you are sliding down a slippery slope. You are no longer protecting the “sheep from the wolves,” you are just a different pack of wolves.

    38. #38 |  Pinandpuller | 

      Calm down Euler-this ain’t Little Green Footballs.

    39. #39 |  Pinandpuller | 

      Radley Balko wrote: “Except that, as noted, there are 7,000 kids who are wards of the state in Kentucky. Meaning that there are way more kids than there are hetero couples who want them. Hence, my point. Unless you think these kids are better off raised by the state of Kentucky than they are by a loving gay couple, this is more about hating gay people than it is about what’s best for these kids.”

      Apparently in Kentucky you can change your geneder on your birth certificate so problem solved. Either that or you can deport them to Tennessee or Ohio.

    40. #40 |  Pinandpuller | 

      Gender that is. I thought that I was French for a second.

    41. #41 |  Pinandpuller | 

      Episiarch wrote: ” How would this be different than a straight man with a dead wife and a kid, whose brother comes to live with him to help out?”

      Bringing necrophelia and incest into this discussion is just going to confuse everyone.

    42. #42 |  old | 

      Or is hating gay people more important than what’s best for these kids?

      Yes.

      Testimony from a former guard at Guantanamo Bay. It’s difficult to blame the ground-level guys in this stuff. I blame the people who put in place the policies that allowed it to happen. Which is why they need to be held accountable.

      Befehl ist Befehl

    43. #43 |  cls | 

      Radley: May I echo what has been said here. You misstate the studies on two parent families. These studies compared children raised by two parents (a mom and a dad) to those raised by one parent (a mom or a dad but not both). Conservatives then used the references to having a mother and father and tried to pretend this compared children in these families to those raised by gay couples. The studies DID NOT do that. Conservatives are very moral except when it comes to lying about gay people — then all morality is out the window.

      No study that I know of has said children raised by same-sex parents are worse off than children raised by opposite-sex parents. Conservatives may have made these claims and then shown studies about the benefits of two parents to one. But that is nothing more than a cheap bait and switch tactic. You shouldn’t fall for it.

    44. #44 |  Trey Garrison | 

      Thank you, Radley.

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